For the first time in the world!Experimental male rats successfully pregnant and have children. Is there a far away for men?

Recently, two Chinese female scientists conducted a study that castrated the experimental mouse and sacrificed three experimental mice (blood supply, uterine, and egg supply), male and pregnant female mouse pregnancy, female ratsThe vagina was blocked, and the mouse successfully gave birth to a cub through a cesarean section. Of the 562 embryos transplanted, only 10 cubs developed into adulthood.

So”Chinese scientists successfully made the topic of the male mouse pregnant”quickly rushed to the hot search!

The topic of the male mouse rushed to the hot search caused discussion

The huge discussion caused by "Gong Rat Pregnancy" is not only about the possibility of male fertility in the future, but also ethical issues from the experimental process.

Regarding the popular discussion and doubts of the public, Zhang Rongjia, the first author and communication author of the study, then responded in an academic community.

How is "Gong Rat Pregnancy Production" realized

As we all know, only the species of male pregnancy in nature in nature are sea dragons (fish including seahors, windpifish and sea dragons) creatures.

So how does Chinese female scientists successfully make male mouse pregnant?

The above research results were published on Biorxiv, a pre -printed platform of Life Science, entitled "A Rat Model of Pregnancy in The Male Parabiont".Zhang Rongjia, Department of Nutrition and Food, Naval Medical College of Naval Medical University, and Liu Yuhuan, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Naval Medical University Changhai Hospital.The paper has not yet completed the peer review and has not been officially published.

Research results published on Biorxiv, a pre -printed platform for life science

The research team uses rats for research. The entire process is divided into four steps:

(1) The castrated male rats and female rats are connected through surgery to form a pair of heterosexual connection symbiosis;

(2) After 8 weeks, uterine transplantation of the male rats;

(3) After recovery, the blastocyst embryo is transplanted into the natural uterus of the male rats and the female rats;

(4) A caesarean section is performed on the 21.5th day of embryonic development.

A total of 46 pairs of conjoined mice were constructed, and a total of 562 embryos were transplanted to conjoined female rats, and 280 embryos were transplanted to transplant uterus of conjoined male rats.Among them, 169 embryos are developing normally (30.07%) in the uterus of female rats, and 27 embryo develops in the uterus of male rats (9.64%).

Among these 46 pairs of heterosexual connections, 25 pairs of normal embryos are not displayed in males or females, 15 pairs only display at least one normal embryo in the females, and 6 pairs have at least one normal in the male and female.The embryo does not appear in the males that are displayed as normal embryos but abnormal in females.

The research team has inferred and further confirmed that the embryos in the male transplantation uterus can only develop normally only exposed to the blood of pregnant females.

In the end, the male rats successfully gave birth to 10 normally developed rats. These male rats’ new cubs can develop normally to adulthood and have reproductive functions.Territic examinations show that the descendants of these male rats have no obvious abnormalities in the hearts, lungs, liver, kidney, brain, testicles, epididymia, ovarian or uterus.

A total of 163 pairs of rats (one male and one female) were incorporated into the experiment. Only 6 pairs of rats were left to the end, and 7 female rats were born of these 6 pairs of male individuals, 3 male rat, and grew up to adults normally.

In the figure above, the home column counts the destination and proportion of all mice: red: an abnormal estrus cycle after the heterogeneity, 28 mice, accounting for 17.18%, red mosaic: wound infection, ten mice (6.13%(6.13%), Blue: The failure of uterine transplant surgery, 9 (5.52%), blue mosaic: death after uterine transplantation, 9, 5.52%, blue horizontal stripes: abnormal estrus cycle after uterine transplantation, 7, 4.29 4.29%.Pink: Failure of mating, 12, 7.36%, pink mosaic: The color and shape of the transplanted uterus are abnormal, 13, 15.34%, light blue: there is no normal fetus in the body of the male and female symbiotic creature after 18.5 days of transplanting embryos, 25Lian Mosaic: After 18.5 days of transplantation, only female rats have normal fetuses. Light blue horizontal bars: After transplantation for 18.5 days, male and female fetuses are normal in male and female symbiosis, 6, 3.68%.

It is understood that this is the first time in the world about the pregnancy and production of male mammals. The research team has successfully constructed the male and female mouse model, allowing the male rats to pregnancy and gave birth to 10 cubs, and these cubs are allDevelopment to adulthood also has normal reproductive function.

Under such a complex experimental design, the success rate of fertility is very low, only 3.68%, which is equivalent to only one survival of the 30 embryos. Therefore, it seems that "men’s pregnancy" seems to be far away.

The author responded to doubt: We verified that the understanding of your understanding is exactly the opposite

"Significance" is obviously the most concerned part of the public’s scientific achievements, but readers who have read the dissertation are unavoidable.

Because in the original text, only one sentence summarizes: Our experimental results show that after the male and female rats are couplet, the male rats (in fact refer to the uterus transplanted in the male rats) can be used as a place where embryonic development can be used as embryo development.This may have a great impact on the development of reproductive biology. Ogy.).

It can be seen that the author is cautious in dealing with this problem.

According to the author’s explanation, its research significance is that "this experiment reveals the possibility of the normal development of male mammalian embryos, which may have a profound impact on reproductive biology."But many readers do not agree with this.

For example, this experiment only provides the mouse as a nutritional tool. To some extent, it is only equivalent to organ transplantation/transsexual surgery and artificial surgery. In fact, the male mouse does not have any effect at all. The uterus is transplanted and embryos are implanted.The blood supplying the embryo is another pregnant female.

The main significance of this experiment is that from the perspective of reproductive biology, the uterus can mature embryo development under the action of hormones in the blood.Therefore, its real application scenario should be the in vitro pregnancy.

If men want to give birth independently, their prerequisites also include: extraction of various hormones related to pregnancy in the blood, analyzing time and concentration related laws, and conducting hormone injections and experiments.Reversal ofrogens, otherwise men after pregnancy cannot be restored.

From the perspective of the insured person, this experiment completely regards the mice as a tool rather than a creature, which is clearly conflicting with the principle of no harm and the principle of respect.They believe that respect for the principles refers to respecting people, respect, and their dignity.

Emily Mcivor, a senior scientific policy adviser to treat the Animal Organization (PETA), described the research as "meaningless" and criticized the study. He believes that these shocking experiments are just out of curiosity, and we have improved us to humans to humans.The reproductive system has no help, and the two sensitive mice are connected with surgery. These two mice have suffered from dismembered and long -term pain for several weeks. This is immoral.

Liu Yongmou, a professor at Renmin University of China, believes that this experiment should not pass ethical censorship.

The author of the study rejected an interview in the health industry on the grounds that the thesis was officially released.But for the popular discussion and doubts of the public, Zhang Rongjia, the first author and communication author of the research, replied on the Pubpeer on June 19:

I am the first author and communication author of this article.In the beginning, we thought that our research was only scientific research, but only doing experiments for curiosity.We didn’t expect so many unscientific feedback.

This paper is currently just pre -printed and has not passed the peer review.There may be deficiencies and corrections.And we also realize that some inappropriate descriptions in the pre -print book have brought some unnecessary trouble to those in the field of non -field.For those who do not belong to this field, we do have some explanations:

1.Please stop linking the rats model with humans.They are completely different (mice can be reproduced nearly, mice have two uterus, and mice’s hind limbs have strong resistance to ischemia. These are the basis of this model that humans do not have).

2.Even if we consider humans, our experiments are just the opposite, indicating that men’s pregnancy in humans at this stage is not feasible.That’s because we find that only the male Parabiont who has been in contact with the blood of pregnancy?Only the possibility of pregnancy, and the success rate is very low.If our results are correct, this is almost a decision to death for human men’s pregnancy.

3.We have spent many years in this paper. All the tasks we have done are for our personal interests and curiosity. Please do not blame others.

4.Regarding animal ethics, we have our own rules, which can be summarized as two points: (1) minimize the number of animals as much as possible; (2) minimize the pain of animals as much as possible.If you read our papers carefully, you will find that we have used different receptors during the surgical training stage, and the number of mice used is reduced by 60; all surgery is performed in the state of anesthesia and has previous documents support.There are no pain symptoms such as screaming.In addition, pregnancy will not cause obvious pain, but childbirth can cause.So we adopted a cesarean section.

5.Please treat pre -print papers carefully because they have not passed peer reviews.It is inappropriate to exaggerate the conclusions of pre -printing books with scientific facts.And do not bring non -scientific factors into scientific research.

If you have any other questions, please send me an email.This is the only way you communicate with me.

The thesis author "PUBPEER" reply

Is it possible for men to become pregnant in the future?

Now that the uterus in the above experiments is also "transplanted", if you really explore the pregnancy or male pregnancy, the premise is to provide uterus and hormones. What state of uterine transplantation and artificial uterus is currently developing?

In fact, there have been many studies in uterine transplantation, and the cases of uterine transplantation surgery have been successfully achieved in humans.With the gradual development of human uterus transplantation worldwide, the public’s acceptance of uterine transplantation has gradually increased.

On January 20, 2019, the first babies born in the northerly in China were born at the Xijing Hospital of the Air Force Military Medical University.

The artificial uterus is an ideal reproductive device. By simulating the conditions of mammalian uterus, the fertilized eggs develop in the artificial environment, thereby getting rid of the needs of the mother.

The original intention of researchers to study the artificial uterus is not to use it on men, but to cause women to get away from fertility pain.Artificial uterus is not a human tissue, but a precise and complicated device that provides a living space for an individual for fertilized eggs.

In April 2014, the Institute of Witzmann in Israel said that he had made artificial uterus and cultivated hundreds of mice, and the organ development indicators of mice were normal.

In 2017, the Philadelphia Children’s Hospital of the United States transformed a group of premature infants incubators and turned it into a "plastic bag" artificial uterus.They put the eight lamb fetuses that were not developed in this uterus for 4 weeks, and finally succeeded.

However, this uterus cannot make the fetus develop from the fertilized eggs. It needs to be completely formed in its organs, and when it can be separated from the mother’s uterus, it can be entered into this artificial uterus.However, the expectations of this study are mainly to increase the survival rate of premature babies and reduce complications of premature infants.

Lamb breed of artificial uterus

It can be said that the artificial uterus used on human beings is still a beautiful vision.It is difficult to simulate the complex environmental environment of human mothers: it is necessary to have artificial placenta and artificial umbilical cord, which can smoothly provide the fetus with oxygen and nutrients; there must be artificial amniotic fluid and artificial blood circulation system;Essence

In addition, in April this year, "Science" magazine published the papers of Israeli scientific research teams using artificial uterus to cultivate mice embryo, so that mice embryo developed heart, stomach, head, and limbs within 6 days.The team plans to challenge the ethical taboos of the "14 -day rules" of embryonic research. The human uterus cultivates human embryos to the fifth week, while observing and manipulating early development.Because some countries have prohibited human embryo developed for more than two weeks.Therefore, according to the "14 -day rules", this goal is prohibited in these countries.

This also reflects that the research of scientists on life breeding has always faced huge ethical obstacles in addition to facing technical problems.

Source: Health Realm

Author: Esto

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